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      drf-jwt手动签发与校验,drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页

      今日

      """
      1、drf-jwt手动签发与校验
      2、drf小组件:过滤、筛选、排序、分页 => 针对与群查接口
      """

      签发token

      源码入口
      # 前提:给一个局部禁用了所有 认证与权限 的视图类发送用户信息得到token,其实就是登录接口
      
      # 1)rest_framework_jwt.views.ObtainJSONWebToken 的 父类 JSONWebTokenAPIView 的 post 方法
      #       接受有username、password的post请求
      # 2)post方法将请求数据交给 rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer 处理
      #       完成数据的校验,会走序列化类的 全局钩子校验规则,校验得到登录用户并签发token存储在序列化对象中
      核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.serializer.JSONWebTokenSerializer的validate(self, attrs)方法
      def validate(self, attrs):
          # 账号密码字典
          credentials = {
              self.username_field: attrs.get(self.username_field),
              'password': attrs.get('password')
          }
          if all(credentials.values()):
              # 签发token第1步:用账号密码得到user对象
              user = authenticate(**credentials)
              if user:
                  if not user.is_active:
                      msg = _('User account is disabled.')
                      raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
                  # 签发token第2步:通过user得到payload,payload包含着用户信息与过期时间
                  payload = jwt_payload_handler(user)
                  # 在视图类中,可以通过 序列化对象.object.get('user'或者'token') 拿到user和token 
                  return {
                      # 签发token第3步:通过payload签发出token
                      'token': jwt_encode_handler(payload),
                      'user': user
                  }
              else:
                  msg = _('Unable to log in with provided credentials.')
                  raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
          else:
              msg = _('Must include "{username_field}" and "password".')
              msg = msg.format(username_field=self.username_field)
              raise serializers.ValidationError(msg)
      手动签发token逻辑
      # 1)通过username、password得到user对象
      # 2)通过user对象生成payload:jwt_payload_handler(user) => payload
      #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
      # 3)通过payload签发token:jwt_encode_handler(payload) => token
      #       from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler

      校验token

      源码入口
      # 前提:访问一个配置了jwt认证规则的视图类,就需要提交认证字符串token,在认证类中完成token的校验
      
      # 1)rest_framework_jwt.authentication.JSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 父类 BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication 的 authenticate 方法
      #       请求头拿认证信息jwt-token => 通过反爬小规则确定有用的token => payload => user
      核心源码:rest_framework_jwt.authentication.BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication的authenticate(self, request)方法
      def authenticate(self, request):
          """
          Returns a two-tuple of `User` and token if a valid signature has been
          supplied using JWT-based authentication.  Otherwise returns `None`.
          """
          # 带有反爬小规则的获取token:前台必须按 "jwt token字符串" 方式提交
          # 校验user第1步:从请求头 HTTP_AUTHORIZATION 中拿token,并提取
          jwt_value = self.get_jwt_value(request)
          # 游客
          if jwt_value is None:
              return None
          # 校验
          try:
              # 校验user第2步:token => payload
              payload = jwt_decode_handler(jwt_value)
          except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
              msg = _('Signature has expired.')
              raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
          except jwt.DecodeError:
              msg = _('Error decoding signature.')
              raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed(msg)
          except jwt.InvalidTokenError:
              raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed()
          # 校验user第3步:token => payload
          user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
      
          return (user, jwt_value)
      手动校验token逻辑
      # 1)从请求头中获取token
      # 2)根据token解析出payload:jwt_decode_handler(token) => payloay
      #       from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
      # 3)根据payload解析出user:self.authenticate_credentials(payload) => user
      #       继承drf-jwt的BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication,拿到父级的authenticate_credentials方法

      案例:实现多方式登陆签发token

      models.py
      from django.db import models
      
      from django.contrib.auth.models import AbstractUser
      class User(AbstractUser):
          mobile = models.CharField(max_length=11, unique=True)
      
          class Meta:
              db_table = 'api_user'
              verbose_name = '用户表'
              verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
      
          def __str__(self):
              return self.username
      serializers.py
      from rest_framework import serializers
      from . import models
      import re
      
      # 拿到前台token的两个函数: user => payload => token
      # from rest_framework_jwt.settings import api_settings
      # jwt_payload_handler = api_settings.JWT_PAYLOAD_HANDLER
      # jwt_encode_handler = api_settings.JWT_ENCODE_HANDLER
      from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
      from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
      
      
      # 1) 前台提交多种登录信息都采用一个key,所以后台可以自定义反序列化字段进行对应
      # 2) 序列化类要处理序列化与反序列化,要在fields中设置model绑定的Model类所有使用到的字段
      # 3) 区分序列化字段与反序列化字段 read_only | write_only
      # 4) 在自定义校验规则中(局部钩子、全局钩子)校验数据是否合法、确定登录的用户、根据用户签发token
      # 5) 将登录的用户与签发的token保存在序列化类对象中
      class UserModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
          # 自定义反序列字段:一定要设置write_only,只参与反序列化,不会与model类字段映射
          usr = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
          pwd = serializers.CharField(write_only=True)
          class Meta:
              model = models.User
              fields = ['usr', 'pwd', 'username', 'mobile', 'email']
              # 系统校验规则
              extra_kwargs = {
                  'username': {
                      'read_only': True
                  },
                  'mobile': {
                      'read_only': True
                  },
                  'email': {
                      'read_only': True
                  },
              }
      
          def validate(self, attrs):
              usr = attrs.get('usr')
              pwd = attrs.get('pwd')
      
              # 多方式登录:各分支处理得到该方式下对应的用户
              if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
              elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
              else:
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
              user_obj = user_query.first()
      
              # 签发:得到登录用户,签发token并存储在实例化对象中
              if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                  # 签发token,将token存放到 实例化类对象的token 名字中
                  payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                  token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                  # 将当前用户与签发的token都保存在序列化对象中
                  self.user = user_obj
                  self.token = token
                  return attrs
      
              raise serializers.ValidationError({'data': '数据有误'})
      views.py
      #实现多方式登陆签发token:账号、手机号、邮箱等登陆
      # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
      # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类
      # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
      # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
      import re
      from . import serializers, models
      from utils.response import APIResponse
      
      from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_payload_handler
      from rest_framework_jwt.serializers import jwt_encode_handler
      
      class LoginAPIView(APIView):
          # 1) 禁用认证与权限组件
          authentication_classes = []
          permission_classes = []
          def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
              # 2) 拿到前台登录信息,交给序列化类,规则:账号用usr传,密码用pwd传
              user_ser = serializers.UserModelSerializer(data=request.data)
              # 3) 序列化类校验得到登录用户与token存放在序列化对象中
              user_ser.is_valid(raise_exception=True)
              # 4) 取出登录用户与token返回给前台
              return APIResponse(token=user_ser.token, results=serializers.UserModelSerializer(user_ser.user).data)
      
          # "一根筋" 思考方式:所有逻辑都在视图类中处理
          def my_post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
              usr = request.data.get('usr')
              pwd = request.data.get('pwd')
              if re.match(r'[email protected]+', usr):
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(email=usr)
              elif re.match(r'1[3-9][0-9]{9}', usr):
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(mobile=usr)
              else:
                  user_query = models.User.objects.filter(username=usr)
              user_obj = user_query.first()
              if user_obj and user_obj.check_password(pwd):
                  payload = jwt_payload_handler(user_obj)
                  token = jwt_encode_handler(payload)
                  return APIResponse(results={'username': user_obj.username}, token=token)
              return APIResponse(data_msg='不可控错误')

      案例:自定义认证反爬规则的认证类

      authentications.py
      import jwt
      from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication
      from rest_framework_jwt.authentication import jwt_decode_handler
      from rest_framework.exceptions import AuthenticationFailed
      class JWTAuthentication(BaseJSONWebTokenAuthentication):
          def authenticate(self, request):
              jwt_token = request.META.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')
      
              # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt
              token = self.parse_jwt_token(jwt_token)
      
              if token is None:
                  return None
      
              try:
                  # token => payload
                  payload = jwt_decode_handler(token)
              except jwt.ExpiredSignature:
                  raise AuthenticationFailed('token已过期')
              except:
                  raise AuthenticationFailed('非法用户')
              # payload => user
              user = self.authenticate_credentials(payload)
      
              return (user, token)
      
          # 自定义校验规则:auth token jwt,auth为前盐,jwt为后盐
          def parse_jwt_token(self, jwt_token):
              tokens = jwt_token.split()
              if len(tokens) != 3 or tokens[0].lower() != 'auth' or tokens[2].lower() != 'jwt':
                  return None
              return tokens[1]
      views.py
      from rest_framework.views import APIView
      from utils.response import APIResponse
      # 必须登录后才能访问 - 通过了认证权限组件
      from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated
      # 自定义jwt校验规则
      from .authentications import JWTAuthentication
      class UserDetail(APIView):
          authentication_classes = [JWTAuthentication]
          permission_classes = [IsAuthenticated]
          def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
              return APIResponse(results={'username': request.user.username})

      admin使用自定义User表:新增用户密码密文

      from django.contrib import admin
      from . import models
      
      # 自定义User表,admin后台管理,采用密文密码
      from django.contrib.auth.admin import UserAdmin
      
      class MyUserAdmin(UserAdmin):
          add_fieldsets = (
              (None, {
                  'classes': ('wide',),
                  'fields': ('username', 'password1', 'password2', 'mobile', 'email'),
              }),
          )
      
      admin.site.register(models.User, MyUserAdmin)

      群查接口各种筛选组件数据准备

      models.py
      class Car(models.Model):
          name = models.CharField(max_length=16, unique=True, verbose_name='车名')
          price = models.DecimalField(max_digits=10, decimal_places=2, verbose_name='价格')
          brand = models.CharField(max_length=16, verbose_name='品牌')
      
          class Meta:
              db_table = 'api_car'
              verbose_name = '汽车表'
              verbose_name_plural = verbose_name
      
          def __str__(self):
              return self.name
      admin.py
      admin.site.register(models.Car)
      serializers.py
      class CarModelSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
          class Meta:
              model = models.Car
              fields = ['name', 'price', 'brand']
      views.py
      # Car的群查接口
      from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
      
      class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
          queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
          serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
      urls.py
      url(r'^cars/$', views.CarListAPIView.as_view()),

      drf搜索过滤组件

      views.py
      from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
      
      # 第一步:drf的SearchFilter - 搜索过滤
      from rest_framework.filters import SearchFilter
      
      class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
          queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
          serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
      
          # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
          filter_backends = [SearchFilter]
      
          # 第三步:SearchFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?search=...
          search_fields = ['name', 'price']
          # eg:/cars/?search=1,name和price中包含1的数据都会被查询出

      drf排序过滤组件

      views.py
      from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
      
      # 第一步:drf的OrderingFilter - 排序过滤
      from rest_framework.filters import OrderingFilter
      
      class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
          queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
          serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
      
          # 第二步:局部配置 过滤类 们(全局配置用DEFAULT_FILTER_BACKENDS)
          filter_backends = [OrderingFilter]
      
          # 第三步:OrderingFilter过滤类依赖的过滤条件 => 接口:/cars/?ordering=...
          ordering_fields = ['pk', 'price']
          # eg:/cars/?ordering=-price,pk,先按price降序,如果出现price相同,再按pk升序

      drf基础分页组件

      pahenations.py
      from rest_framework.pagination import PageNumberPagination
      
      class MyPageNumberPagination(PageNumberPagination):
          # ?page=页码
          page_query_param = 'page'
          # ?page=页面 下默认一页显示的条数
          page_size = 3
          # ?page=页面&page_size=条数 用户自定义一页显示的条数
          page_size_query_param = 'page_size'
          # 用户自定义一页显示的条数最大限制:数值超过5也只显示5条
          max_page_size = 5
      views.py
      from rest_framework.generics import ListAPIView
      
      class CarListAPIView(ListAPIView):
          # 如果queryset没有过滤条件,就必须 .all(),不然分页会出问题
          queryset = models.Car.objects.all()
          serializer_class = serializers.CarModelSerializer
          
          # 分页组件 - 给视图类配置分页类即可 - 分页类需要自定义,继承drf提供的分页类即可
          pagination_class = pagenations.MyPageNumberPagination
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